Early Life and EducationEdit
Jackson was born on March 15, 1767. His parents were Scots-Irish colonists Andrew and Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson, Presbyterians who had emigrated from Ireland two years earlier. Jackson's father was born in Carrickfergus, County Antrim, Ireland, around 1738. Jackson's parents lived in the village of Boneybefore, also in County Antrim.
When they emigrated to America in 1765, Jackson's parents probably landed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, which, unbeknownst to them, would be the future capital of their son's vast North American kingdom. They would have traveled overland down through the Appalachian Mountains to the Scots-Irish community in the Waxhaws region, straddling the border between North and South Carolina. They brought two children from Ireland, Hugh (born 1763) and Robert (born 1764).
Jackson's father died in an accident in February 1767, at the age of 29, three weeks before his son Andrew was born in the Waxhaws area. His exact birth site is unclear because he was born about the time his mother was making a difficult trip home from burying Jackson's father. The area was so remote that the border between North and South Carolina had not officially been surveyed.
Jackson received a sporadic education in the local "old-field" school. In 1781, he worked for a time in a saddle-maker's shop. After the secession of the Carolinas in 1783, Jackson decided to head north and remain in the American Republic.
Early Military ServiceEditDuring the Great Revolution, Jackson, at age thirteen, joined a local militia as a courier. His eldest brother, Hugh, died from heat exhaustion during the Battle of Stono Ferry, on June 20, 1779. Jackson and his brother Robert were captured by the British and held as prisoners; they nearly starved to death in captivity. When Jackson refused to clean the boots of a British officer, the officer slashed at the youth with a sword, leaving Jackson with scars on his left hand and head, as well as an intense hatred for the British. While imprisoned, the brothers contracted smallpox.
Robert Jackson died on April 27, 1781, a few days after their mother Elizabeth secured the brothers' release. After being assured Andrew would recover, Elizabeth Jackson volunteered to nurse prisoners of war on board two ships in Charleston harbor, where there had been an outbreak of cholera. She died from the disease in November 1781, and was buried in an unmarked grave. Jackson became an orphan at age of 14. Following the deaths of his brothers and mother during the war, Jackson blamed the British for his losses.
Jackson recieved a sporadic education in the local "old-field" school. In 1781, after the deaths of his brothers and mother, he worked for a time in a saddle-maker's shop. In 1783, the Carolinas seceded from the American Republic , creating the Republic of North Carolina and the Democracy of South Carolina. Andrew made the decision to remain an "American," and traveled north.
The year 1784 found him in the capital of Philadelphia. This was the same year that saw the creation of the Philadelphia Military Academy. A pet project of Second Triumvir Aaron Burr, the academy was meant to train officers for the American military. In its tumultuous early years the school had few standards for admission or length of study; reforms would not occur until the late 1790s. It was under these circumstances that a 17 year old Andrew Jackson, a broke orphan and with scant education, was able to be accepted into the Academy during its first official year.
Time at the Philadelphia Military AcademyEdit
Since he was not from a distinguished family, Jackson was forced to move his career ahead on his own merits. At the Academy he strove to be the best and become a real soldier. While his academic studies were average, he excelled at physical challenges and athletics. Showing a natural ability for leadership, Jackson stood out from his peers based on his own personality. First had accounts, taken from fellow students and teachers years later, describe a certain passion behind him; a need to strive for the best and prove himself right. Many also describe his temper, and quickness to fight. Several times during his years at the Academy he was reprimanded for fighting other students. Besides first hand accounts, there are few official documents about Jackson's time in Philadelphia. This is mainly due to the sad state the Academy was in during its first decade and its lack of proper record keeping. Still, it can be said that Jackson dominated his class, and that out of 57 students, he graduated at number 17 in 1788.
Supper at Monticello and Literary Career Edit
Despite his youth, Jackson's head was full of thoughts and opinions influenced by his childhood and experiences. Despite his lack of writing skills, he put pen to paper and in 1786 he wrote Supper at Monticello at the young age of 19. It was a pro-republican phamplet of 56 pages, detailing a fictional meeting with the Triumvirate at Thomas Jefferson's palatial estate. It was originally based off an essay written as an Academy assignment, and that his teacher had encouraged him to publish. Sales were minimal, but would greatly increased after Jackson had made a name for himself. Despite its extremely low circulation, it was read by First Triumvir Thomas Paine. Paine appreciated the strong nationalism and republicanism expressed, if not the writing style, and compared its contents to his own Plain Truth (at least in later years). Believing to have found himself a loyal soldier who could be used later on, Jackson became a personal favorite of Paine's and a future protege. The young student recieved a thoughtful letter from the First Triumvir himself, and when he graduated in 1788, Jackon was promoted to Second Lieutenant in the Cavalry, instead of simply an Officer Cadet.
Jackson would write several more pamphlets throughout his life, one in 1799, 1804, 1811, and 1830. But he never did write a full fledge book, or a memoir. Some said he considered writing a book beneath a king, although most historians agree that Jackson simply wasn't a writer by nature, and it was by chance he was able to concieve so many short pamphlets.
War of 1790Edit
The War of 1790 began on August 2nd, 1790, when the American Republic declared war on the Republic of North Carolina, also known as the North Carolina Republic, over a complicated trade conflict between the two nations. Three weeks after the war started, an American Army under General James Monroe was sent to conquer and readmitt the estarnged former state in the American Republic once and for all. Andrew Jackson was an aide in James Monroe's army during the invasion.
Siege of Sparta, North CarolinaEdit
On August 29, 1790, the Seige of Sparta began when General James Monroe ordered three brigades forward, down the Appalachian Mountains. What was supposed to be a routine skirmish turned into a major siege when North Carolinian troops under 70 year old General and Great Revolution veteran John Ashe (and brother of North Carolina President Samuel Ashe) brought up thousands of troops in Sparta's defense. Monroe's entire Army of Appalachia soon arrived, and the Americans opened up a front several miles wide against North Carolinians and Georgians (while Georgia was neutral, thousands of citizens volunteered to fight in the war, and were given North Carolinian uniforms). Monroe favored the use of cannons to ground down the enemy, although these quickly proved useless against North Carolinian defenses. Jackson, who had arrived at the siege along with the whole of the army, was a cavalry officer and on Monroe's personal staff. According to him, he had located a gap in the North Carolinian defenses that only his cavalry could exploit. Monroe refused to give Jackson the order to attack, believing the cavalry would be wiped out. When an infantry assault was pushed back days later, Jackson again requested that his men charge. Monroe again refused to act. Acting in military insubordination, Jackson gathered his cavalry, some militia, and a few volunteers, and began his own personal charge; it was October 20. Under thick fire, the cavalry galloped over the poorly constructed walls right into a wall of brown uniformed North Carolinian troops. Unprepared for this action, troops began to flee, and eventually the entire flank was in a route. Watching this from across the battlefield, General Monroe was in shock. Always cautious, he ordered his underofficers to hold their men.
It was at this moment when Gwendolyn Jones, a 20 year old battlefield nurse, broke down in anger. Jones had been working near the staff, and had been watching the events that had just happened. She began screaming wildly, insulting General Monroe and his officers, calling them treasonous cowards. She ripped an American green-white-red banner out of the hands of a soldier, and began running towards the North Carolinian defenses; stopping suddenly, she called for other troops to join her in martyrdom before turning around and returning to her sprint. After a few moments, a handful of troops broke ranks and began following. Other then joined. Then an officer began galloping on his horse and order his men to follow. Soon half a brigade was following Jones' lead towards the front. She was the first one to reach the wall, impaling a North Carolinian soldier on the flag banner; up till now, the North Carolinians had ceased fire, not wanting to hit a woman. Before they could react, other Americans smashed into them. Thick fighting began, and Jones was forcibly removed from the fighting by a few "gentlemenly" troops.
With Jackson's cavalry finishing off the route at the other end of the front, they turned around and hit the remaining North Carolinians in the back. They were slaughtered, and brown shirted troops were scattered across the fields surrounding Sparta. The seige officially ended hours later. Upon entering the city itself, General Monroe was quoted as saying "By the heavens, I should court-martial Captain Jackson for disobeying his commanding officer and the Republic, but seeing this, I don't care if he did it right after spitting in my face and running off with my daughter. Bloody miracle." That night, in a special ceremony, General Ashe surrendered his sword to General Monroe in a nearby house. Exiting the building, Monroe held up Jackson's arm in triumph as the surrounding troops cheered. Gwendolyn Jones, who had been allowed to return after the siege, was hoisted up by other soldiers, with them calling her the "Lady of the Republic." The name would stick.
Promotion and the End of the WarEdit
When news reached the government in Philadelphia, they were thrilled. With the siege over, the war could now continue; many in the country were against the war, namely the Jeffersonian Party, and used the Siege of Sparta as propaganda that it wasn't worth it. But the American Republic had new heroes to show off, and morale was reinvigorated. Second Triumvirate Aaron Burr favored rewarding Jackson, while Third Triumvir Thomas Jefferson favored having him drummed out of the army for insubordination and possible treason. First Triumvir Thomas Paine broke the draw in favor of Burr; Jackson was still his favorite soldier. Jackson was soon informed that he had been promoted to Lieutenant Colonel (bypassing two ranks), and that Gwendolyn Jones was invited back to Philadelphia to join the social elite as an official guest of the government; Jones would spend the rest of the war there. Jackson was now the Cavalry Commander of the Army of Appalachia, and Monroe's new right hand.
Taking the entire cavalry out of the Army of Appalachia, Jackson led them south-west through the Blue Ridge Mountains to the North Carolinian-Georgian border. For the entire conflict, the Republic of Georgia had been sending supplies and reinforcements to North Carolina, despite its neutrality; Jackson was determined to stop this. No official battle took place, but Jackson's cavalry constantly interferred with supply lines, and there was a constant march of North Carolinian POWs heading towards prison camps in Virginia. These camps were cramped and many of the POWs died; modern historians have labeled these camps as war crimes, and Jackson's modern detractors would refer to him as a war criminal from then on. Splitting his cavalry in half, Jackson led part of his army to Charolette, taking it after a two week siege, although he suffered heavy casulaties. At the same time, Monroe marched his remaining forces south-east where they crushed a North Carolinian army under Major John Winslow Hubert at the Battle of Chapel Hill. In mid-December, Jackson's remaining cavalry joined together with Monroe's Army, and together they captured the North Carolinian capital of Raleigh; on Christmas Day, they entered the city.
For several weeks before this, the North Carolinian government had been requesting for a peace agreement. The country had been devastated and depopulated by the war, and they wanted nothing but the return of peace. Each time, the American government refused to negotiate; Triumvirs Paine and Burr fully favored the complete subjugation of North Carolina, while Jefferson had been against it from the start. On the same note, North Carolinian President Samuel Ashe had also quickly grown tired of the war. But the American Republic considered peace out of the question; the war would be fought to a final conclusion.In late January, 1791, the last of the Army of North Carolina was wiped out in the Battle of the Outer Banks. On February 4, the President Ashe sued for unconditional peace. The American Republic accepted this, and the fighting stopped. There would be no official peace treaty, because there would be no Republic of North Carolina to sign it. The country would be absorbed into the American Republic as the state of North Carolina, just like it was before it seceded in 1783. But for now, it was under military occupation (and would remain so until 1803). Monroe was given command of the occupying forces, while Jackson was promoted to Brigadier Colonel at the terrifyingly young age of 24. He was now a household name and a public favorite; something he would use to his advantage in the coming years.
Invasion of Panama and Time as Military GovernorEdit
Return to AmericaEdit
4th of November Coup d'etatEdit
When General Andrew Jackson, aged 32, returned from the Panama Territory to Philadelphia, the capital of the American Republic, he could hardly recongize his beloved country. Under the ineffective Triumvirate govenrment, corruption was rampant in the American government. To make matters worse, the 62 year old First Triumvir Thomas Paine was bedridden with pnuemonia, and his death was expected. If Paine were to die, 43 year old Second Triumvir Aaron Burr would replace Paine as First Triumvir. The thought of such a thing made Jackson cringe. Burr was exactly like Paine, if he were to come to power, it would be the same radical and damaging administration as before, not to mention Burr was an all auround weak and ineffective leader. And even worse, because of Burr's weakness, Thomas Jefferson would most likely control the country. Jackson despised Jefferson's views on government, especially his focus on agrarianism and reform.
On October 1st, 1799, the bedridden Paine called General Jackson to his home in Philadelphia. There he informed Jackson that he too feared a Jeffersonian government, and would work to prevent it. Upon his death, Paine said, Jackson should lead a military coup against the Triumvirate. Promised the backing of the army and several Jacksonian Party politicians, Jackson accepted the proposition. This of course was treason against the American Republic.
On the morning of October 28, at Alexander Hamilton I's estate in the Philadelphia countryside, the main conspirators met in secret; Hamilton himself, General Jackson, and General Anthony Wayne. Afterwords, a carriage took them to Philadelphia. After meeting up with groups of supporters and soldiers supplied by co-conspirator General James Monroe, the coup d'etat was put into action. At noon on November 4th, 400 troops left their stations in Philadelphia and the surrounding areas and marched to the capitol building. Ten cannons were split up around the building's exits, and cavalry patrolled the city streets. Jackson himself galloped on his horse onto the stairs of Administrative Hall, and drew his sword in the direction of it. A group of Grenadiers kicked in the door, and the troops invaded the building. With the realization of what was happening, Jefferson and Burr fled the building through a secret passage in the basement. While troops chased them down, official Triumvirate advisors were gathered up and arrested. Some, unfortunately, didn't meet the same fate; both Patick Henry and Thomas Mifflin were killed, the former when he fell out of a window after being accidentially shot in the shoulder, the latter when he attempted to defend himself and a soldier cut his throat. This fighting was because of the Triumvirate Guards, those troops stationed at Administrative Hall that were still loyal. They were eventually forced out of the building after heavy hand-to-hand fighting, and were shot down in droves by the cannons outside.Jackson himself was in the thickest fighting, killing several Triumvirate Guards with his sabre. Jefferson and Burr were captured and brought back up to the surface, where Jackson had them personally arrested. Walking outside, Jackson adjusted his hat, put his sabre back into its scabbard, and yelled to the troops "Long live the Republic!." They shouted back "Glory be to Jackson," and many historians agree that it was this moment when the Jacksonian Era truly began.
Reign as Chancellor and beginning of the Jacksonian Era (1799-1845)Edit
That same evening, November 4, Jackson proclaimed himself, as one newspaper put it, "the first and only Triumvir." Actually, Jackson never took an official title during his time in power before the monarchy. He answered to many unofficial titles, including but not limited to General, President, Senator, Triumvir, Counselor, and Counsel. But by far the most common, and the most popular, was Chancellor of the Republic. No matter what people called him, Jackson ruled as a dictator. There was no legislature, national court system, or check on his power. And despite no longer being in the military, Jackson's personality still dominated it, and no General could garner the popularity he had. Immediately after taking power, he had to lay down the law as he saw it. For 17 years the Triumvirate had ruled; now that era was dead, and Jackson's time in the spotlight had begun. But despite the change of power, the country was still called the American Republic, as it had since 1775.
Politics as ChancellorEdit
Immediately after taking control, Jackson purged the government. All those whose loyalties were questioned were kicked out of office, and either executed quietly or deported. Members of the Jeffersonian Party were also booted out of office, although the party continued to survive. A new political party formed around Jackson himself, which became known as the Jacksonian Party. The Jacksonians were a successor to the Paineists, with most simply switching names. Jackson's friends were also given high positions; Alexander Hamilton I was named as Foreign Minister; Anthony Wayne was made Grand Marshal of the Army of the Republic; and Monroe was given his own little self rule in the south. By early 1800, the government was completely reformed. Governors who had saw their personal power increase of the government were forced to yield to Jackson or were removed. The army's size was doubled, and the new troops were used as a national police force across the country. Jackson would not be taken by surprise.
As Chancellor Jackson remained popular, although more and more became skeptical. He had purged the country just like the Triumvirate had done, and some actually felt less free under him than they did Paine. But no one dared act; police patrolled everywhere, and any talk of treason meant death. The Chancellor was astute enough to realize this, however. To keep himself in power, Jackson would need a distraction: a war. It was under these circumstances, and on the advice of Hamilton, that Chancellor Andrew Jackson declared war on the Barbary States on April 22, 1800.
A force of 1,500 marines under Admiral Edward Preble (who had served in the Navy for over twenty years) was sent overseas. Using American ships and splitting the marines into several squadrons, Preble launched major attacks on all of the coastal cities. On September 27, 1800, with all of the major cities under American control, the American Republic officially annexed the Barbary States. Despite this annexation, the countries interior, in fact all the land outside of the major cities, remained under Ottoman control or in self-rule. It'd take several years for Hunter DeRensis, who had led the marine attack on Tripoli and had been appointed Governor-General of North Africa, to fully take control of the coastal areas of the colony.
Encouraged by these results, Jackson kept pressing the war card. In January, Chile and the United States of Rio de la Plata went to war over a land despute. The American Republic, who was allied to the United States, declared war on Chile on February 14, 1801. William Henry Harrison had been stationed in Buenos Aires (capital of the U.S.) for a year as the official American Ambassador and a military attache. Harrison was commissioned as an official Argentinian General, and in early July began his campaign. Harrison won several stunning victories, and after nearly three years, the war ended on December 5, 1803. The American Republic once again came out victorious, the United States annexed Chile, and Harrison had become a military hero back home (he had actually left South American in late 1802 to become the new Grand Marshal of the Army of the American Republic).In 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte was elected President of the Louisiana Republic. Bonaparte had become famous for his millitary campaigns against the Indians, and was known as one of the most skilled commanders on the continent. The Louisiana Republic had always been an American enemy, and his election to office proved an unbearable threat. While Jackson urged a cautious course and a slow troop movement, Grand Marshal Anthony Wayne took it upon himself to act. Wayne had been gathering information on the Bonaparte family for nearly two years using a local female spy, Constance DuPont. At Bonaparte's inauguration, he was shot point-blank by DuPont, who was then killed by guards. Although apparently dead, Bonaparte would survive the attack with only a shoulder injury. The attack was immediately blamed on the American Republic, and in response Jackson sacked Wayne and demoted him back down to General. Harrison was promoted to Grand Marshal in his place, and called back home. An alliance was formed between the Louisiana Republic, the Republic of Georgia, the Democracy of South Carolina, and Great Britain to eliminate America and the threat it posed to world peace. On Christmas Day, December 25, the British-Southern Alliance declared war on the American Republic and Andrew Jackson. The Second Seven Years' War officially began.
Beginning of the Second Seven Years' War (1802-1805)Edit
Ascension to the ThroneEdit
Backgournd Since Jackson forcefully took control of the country, many despised him and he considered himself surrounded by enemies. Some saw the 4th of November as treason, and the new Chancellorship as a military dictatorship. Several assassination plots and coup attempts were stopped before they began, and none were ever able to get steam. Many opponents were killed just because they were considered a threat, even though there was no proof of any anti-government plots. The war took away attention from the government, giving Jackson some elbow room to maneuver politically. Jackson sought a way to legitimize his claim, and make a revolutionary attempt more difficult. With the ever increasing popularity of Chancellor Jackson, in mid-1804 Foreign Minister Alexander Hamilton I formulated the idea of a new goverment for America. Hamilton knew this needed to be a governemnt that would withstand the pruges and corruption of the Triumvirate Years, gain the respect of the long established European powers and have the ability to become a world power on its own. Hamilton came to the conclusion that the only way for these plans to come to pass was for America to become a Constitutional Monarchy.
Hamilton first addressed these plans in a private September letter to Grand Marshal William Henry Harrison, the head of the army since 1802. The two had worked closely together, and Hamilton felt he could trust Harrison. Describing how such a constitutional monarchy would function, Hamilton described the powers of a "King Jackson" and how he himself would act as a type of "Prime Minister" and political advisor. Assured he would still remain a General (since Jackson would control the military as King), Harrison agreed that the plan should be put forward and that he would not oppose it.
Hamilton and Harrison first brought the idea to Jackson on a meeting with him on September 22, 1804. The Chancellor was at first skeptical of the idea. The next two weeks were spent talking everyday between the three in private meetings. The exact conversations were never recorded or spoken of. Suffice it to say, most of the meetings consisted of Jackson asking questions, Hamilton answering them with theoretical solutions, and Harrison nodding and occasionly mentioned a few sparse words. Finally, in early October, Andrew Jackson conceded the need to form a monarchy to preserve the system. On October 12, 1804, an official announcement was sent out to the world in the first public mention of the monarchy, with the reasoning and logic behind it. The date for the coronation was set as January 1. Thus, from mid-October to December of 1804, preparations were made for the coronation ceremony.
Hamilton first addresed this idea in a private letter, dated September 11, 1804, to Grand Marshall of the American Republic William Henry Harrison .
Chancellor Jackson was skeptical when he heard of the plan.
Thus, from October to December of 1804, preperations were being made for the coronation ceremony.
On New Year's Day of 1805, Andrew Jackson was coronated King Andrew I, of the House of Jackson, of the Union of Royal American States.
Reorginization of the American GovernmentEdit
Reign as King Andrew I (1805-1845)Edit
Victory in the Second Seven Years War (1805-1809) Edit
"Peace in our Time" (1810-1827)Edit
Andrew, William, and Henry: Opposing ForcesEdit
The Peninsular War (1827-1829)Edit
The Duke Arrives at PhiladelphiaEdit
The Subjigation of Morroco (1832-1834)Edit
The Perry FiascoEdit
The First Race for Africa (1834-1849)Edit
Cass, Buchanan, and Political RetirementEdit
The Great South American War (1844-1845)Edit
Death and LegacyEdit
King Andrew I fell ill in early June of 1845.
"Tell my son I love him, and I love this country. Tell him I devoted my life to making this a better place for him, his children, and his children's children. I leave him a rich kingdom, which is the best in the world. All that the Union has, is the best. Our military the Best. Our People the Best. Our Men the Best. Our Women the best. Our children the best. Our warriors the best. Our People worship the True God, not maniacal prophets, not one of a people that nailed Christ upon the Cross, and not one that propagates the stealing from the wealthy to give to those who not do honest work. Tell John to take good care of it all, and be a good steward of my creation. God bless you, one and all, and God Bless the Union of Royal American States."
"Any Regrets?" was asked by Viceroy Abel P. Upshur.
His response was "I regret I never hanged John C. Calhoun."
These were King Andrew I's last words.
At 12 o'clock noon on June 4, 1845, the 69th Anniversary of the signing of the Declaraiton of Autonomy, a date that later became known as Black Wendsday, King Andrew I deid at the age of 78 from chronic tuberculosis, dropsy and heart faliure.
Today, King Andrew I is considered to be one of the America's greatest leaders.